Feedback is a response in a systemic-constructivist
view referring to behaviour from out of the context. Feedbacks
mirror the requirements of a context and serve as an orientation
for one’s own behaviour. Within the framework of competence
development a person learns situational successful behaviour through
Feedback is authoritative.
Authority is then appropriate when the feedback relates
to exactly described requirements in the sense of right or wrong.
The recitation of factual knowledge uses a third instance for the
feedback – information set in writing. The trainer legitimizes
his authority using the information which is available to all those
Coaching itself is a context interpreted by values. If all participants
have the same understanding of these values then this is a basis
for the legitimacy of authority. If no benchmark exists which is
shared by all participants in the feedback then authority loses
its legitimacy and becomes arbitrary. Orientation is no longer
The benchmark for feedback must be known
to all involved.
If the provider of feedback is not aware which feelings, motives,
needs, values and abilities influence him as a provider of feedback
then his feedback is usually not legitimate.
The feedback provider gives a response to that what is important
to him. In so doing he declares himself as a benchmark. The reason
behind feedback , the context and the interests of his opposite
are not registered.
The feedback provider has to have developed
personal competence in order to achieve competence for actions
as a feedback provider. Within the framework of his social-communicative
competence a feedback provider has to take the interests into account
of all those involved in the feedback as well as the reason for
Feedback methods mainly try to curb the emotional damage of random
Authority is softened by formulations containing a wish. Interest
in the person opposite is shown through appreciation, that means
appreciative in the sense of respecting the values of the feedback
Common to all methods is the fact that
only what has been observed can be a matter for feedback.
Within the development of competence, a requirement of learning
is that a person is able to assess himself with regards to the
requirements of the context. The feedback from another person is
a control for one’s own situational successful behaviour
as a result of a self-evaluation.
The better a person can evaluate himself in a context or give himself
feedback, the more successful his situational behaviour becomes.
In order to be able to assess oneself in a context, a person must
be able to understand the requirements and the meaning of the context.
A successful self-evaluation contains the
necessity for developing one’s own systemic benchmark.
Viewed in a constructivist way, one’s own benchmark is an expression
of one’s own feelings, motives, needs, values and abilities.
By using one’s own benchmark one runs the risk of acting arbitrarily,
even against oneself.
Only by using a model does the benchmark obtain a structure which
allows the user not to act from within (authoritative) but to act
Teaching and learning feedback according
to the Hamburger Schule
- Feedback is part of the method of the curriculum.
- Feedback is based upon models.
- The curricular allows a transfer
from use of the model as a coach to the use of the model as
a feedback provider.
- The development of personal competence
has priority within competence development.
- All those involved
are used as feedback providers, whether directly or
- Feedback as a method is conveyed and practiced.
- Learning objectives
and the degrees to which competence has been gained are principally
assessed using feedback.